Do you love strawberries? Then you are probably aware that nothing can beat the taste of freshly harvested ones. Growing strawberries is, therefore, a great idea, especially if you know that you will be using this fruit quite often.
The best ones you will ever get the chance to taste are those harvested from a garden. The reason is that fully ripened strawberries boast aromatic and rich flavors that their supermarket counterparts can’t seem to match.
In This Article
Quick Facts About Strawberries
Botanical name: Fragaria spp., Fragaria x ananassa
Type of plant: Fruiting perennial
Native area: Europe
Soil type and pH: Loamy; slightly acidic to neutral pH (Around 5.8 to 6.2)
Sun exposure: Full sunlight
Mature size: 6 to 24-inch wide, 4 to 12-inch tall
Flower color: Red, pink, white
Bloom time: Varies but the most common are early summer and late spring
Hardiness zones: USDA zones 4 to 9
Benefits of Growing Strawberries
Why should you grow strawberries? Here are just some benefits of having strawberries whether in your garden or a pot.
Easy to Grow
Undeniably, growing strawberries is not that hard, which is why a lot of gardeners are fond of making these plants a part of their collection. This fruit loves full sunlight while still being adaptable.
They are also very versatile that it is possible to grow them in pots, hanging baskets, the ground, or any other container capable of holding dirt. You can also grow them in any type of garden, including the raised bed.
Strawberry plants are even incredible introductions to the world of gardening in case there are kids in your home. They can provide a delightful harvest without requiring a lot in terms of care and maintenance.
Better Flavor and Taste
Of course, having your own planted strawberries is also the key to enjoying the incredible flavors and taste of the fruit. This is not to say that there is something wrong with farm-stand and store-bought strawberries as they are also really great.
However, the strawberries that you decide to grow yourself will taste better than those you buy. This is especially true for varieties not yet used by a lot of commercial farmers.
Safe and Healthy
You also have a hundred percent guarantee that the strawberry plants in your garden are completely safe. They are better and healthier for you considering the fact that you have full control over what you put inside each strawberry plant, including organic fertilizer, water, and pesticide.
Note that several of the commercially grown strawberries have high pesticide content. They may not be completely safe for you as such pesticides are still chemicals. You can lessen or fully eliminate chemical and pesticide use by growing strawberries on your own. If possible, do so organically to guarantee safety.
One thing about strawberries that you should remember is that they fall under the perennial classification, which means that purchasing them even just once will result in annual growth. Also, a lot of strawberry plant varieties are capable of self-propagating.
This is a good thing as it means that every plant of strawberries produce several of them every year. The result is a higher number of berries annually even if it is just a single investment.
Types and Varieties of Strawberry Plants
When trying to familiarize yourself with the basics of growing strawberries, it is advisable to introduce yourself to its different types/varieties. One fact is that you can group different types of strawberries based on their fruiting habits.
Ensure that you are aware of the ones you are planting since it will give you an idea about how much and when the exact harvest is going to be. To give you an idea, here are three of the different types of strawberries:
The June-bearing strawberry varieties are among those that can produce a large crop annually, often within a 2 to 3-week period, which, of course, happens around June. Expect them to start bearing fruit earlier during the warm climates, too.
The June-bearing strawberry fruit is a common variety with buds forming during the fall then blooming the next spring. This is when it will start to produce the large crop or harvest that we talked about a while ago.
If you intend to grow the June-bearing types, then note that they can greatly benefit if you remove all existing flowers in them during the first year. This is necessary for increasing its yield in the future.
Of the different types of strawberry plant, the June-bearing variety is also typically the one that can produce the biggest yield throughout the season, though it’s going to be within just a short period. After the annual harvest, it is advisable to renovate them, a process that involves cutting or moving the leaves back to around an inch or so over the crown.
It is also advisable to narrow down the rows to around one foot wide. Remove old plants that do not produce well. Moreover, it is necessary to rake out all the leaves then compost if healthy.
Weed the area, too. It should be weed-free. All these are crucial in encouraging the new growth of your June-bearing strawberries.
The everbearing variety consists of strawberries that don’t bear fruits continuously. It is highly likely for the everbearing strawberries to develop buds during long days, resulting in two primary harvests – one each for the early fall and June.
To support their growth, it is highly recommended to space the plants a few inches apart, specifically around 12 to 15 inches. They should also be around 3 to 4 rows wide.
To guarantee a larger harvest, it is advisable to pinch off the runners of the overbearing variety. Runners, in this case, refer to stems above the ground that tend to form or develop from the crown.
Runners on the everbearing strawberries are not extremely vigorous. If you leave them to grow, then you will only be increasing your chance of having less productive and smaller plants.
It would be much better to encourage and support the growth of just one huge and healthy plant. Removing the flowers may also be necessary for encouraging well-established roots.
The day-neutral strawberry fruit can produce fruit throughout the growing season. However, expect this growth to be just in smaller amounts compared to the June-bearing varieties. The day-neutral does not depend a lot on day length when it comes to fruit production.
What they do, instead, is the strawberries produce fruit depending on the temperature. It is even possible for them to form buds once the temperatures dip to around 30 degrees F. If this temperature goes beyond 75 degrees, it signals the stop of the production process.
The everbearing variety is quite the same as the day-neutral considering the fact that both of them have a long harvesting season. Note, though, that the fruit is often smaller compared to the June-bearers. The day-neutral variety is also capable of producing just a few runners.
The Perfect Time to Plant Strawberries
You should set your plan to plant and grow strawberries anytime the ground is already suitable for use during the early spring. If you want, you may check out the local frost dates to be one hundred percent sure of the perfect time and date for growing strawberries.
It also helps to establish new strawberry plants annually as this can help in improving the quality of the strawberry throughout the season. Also, note that strawberries are capable of producing runners, or daughter plants, known to root and grow into new plants.
Make sure that regardless of the types of strawberries you decided to buy, you have to get them from reputable nurseries and plant stores. Pick disease-resistant ones, too. If possible, seek the advice of the nursery where you intend to make the purchase or the state Cooperative Extension service designed for varieties that are locally recommended.
Finding the Perfect Spot for the Growth of Strawberries
You can expect the strawberries to achieve their best growth potential if you put them in a spot capable of receiving a minimum of six to eight hours of direct sun every day. It is also possible for harvestable berries to be produced even with just six hours of direct sun daily.
However, despite that, it would still be much better for you to pick a site without any shadow-casting or tall trees and plants. Pick a spot for the strawberries that is away from huge trees. The reason is that it can prevent the bare root from competing with and siphoning away the moisture required for growing strawberries.
You also need well-draining soil for this plant, like the sandy loam type. Get rid of all weeds in the area before planting. You can also add some grit or sand, peat moss, and additional compost to your chosen site as it can help in creating the perfect environment for strawberry growth.
In most cases, potting soils provide adequate compositions, especially if you intend to plant strawberries in a pot or container. If that is what you prefer, then you may want to add a fresh compost, around an inch or two of it, to the potting mix’s surface.
One more thing to remember is that several gardeners are not in favor of planting strawberries in soil with crops that tend to harbor the usual soil-borne diseases. Among them are potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers.
How to Start Planting Strawberries?
Regardless of the type of strawberry fruit variety you wish to grow, make sure to pick an area where it will receive full sunlight. Ensure that the garden bed contains moist yet properly drained soil, too. Spade soil to around eight to ten inches deep, allowing sufficient well-rotted manure or compost to get worked in.
Also, note that you have a better chance of becoming successful when planting and growing strawberries if you buy new plants from a reliable nursery. This move would be much better than plants that you get from the garden of a friend or loved one.
The reason is that strawberry plants tend to have lower vigor after several years, making them prone to certain ailments. With that, it would be a lot better for you to begin your strawberry gardening journey fresh, instead of hand-me-downs. It is even advisable to replace the entire strawberry bed every 4 to 5 years.
If you are thinking of planting and growing strawberries that fall under the June-bearing varieties, then it helps to do it during the early spring. Plant these varieties in rows around four feet apart. Set the plants around two feet apart, too.
It is also possible for the mother plants to form plantlets. You can find those on long stems known as runners. Expect them to root as soon as they touch the ground. With that, there is a high chance that they will be filling rows and creating a mat.
Allow the runners to fill up a space that is around 2-feet wide, too. Ensure that there is enough room in between each row, so you can easily access them. If you have day-neutral and overbearing varieties, then it helps to just clip off the runners. Retain the original plant only.
The Actual Steps
To ensure that you will be planting your strawberries the right way, you may want to follow these steps based on the principles and tips above.
Provide enough space designed for sprawling – You can do that by setting out the plants several inches apart, specifically around 1 and ½ feet or 18 inches apart. This should leave sufficient room for the plant’s runners. Also, leave around 4 feet in between each row. Remember that strawberries can be classified as sprawling plants. The seedlings can send out the runners that will eventually result in them sending out their own runner plants.
Create planting holes that are wide and deep enough that they can accommodate the whole bare root system – It should do so without bending the system. Avoid planting it extremely deeply, though. The goal should be to cover the roots while ensuring that the crown still stays right at the surface of the soil. Avoid burying the central growing bud or crown, too; otherwise, they may rot. Ensure that you expose the flowers, leaves, and fruits of this plant to fresh air and light.
Water well during the actual planting time – This should help in making the roots settle into the soil.
You may also want to take advantage of any of the following planting systems that are suitable for strawberries
With the spaced-row planting system, expect that there will be limitations in the number of daughter plants you can grow from that of the mother. It is advisable to set the mother plants apart by around 18 to 30 inches and in rows that are apart by around 3 to 4 feet.
Space the daughter plants to root. The space should not be closer than 4 inches. Pull the other runners or cut them from their mother.
One thing to note about the spaced-row system is that it requires more care compared to the others. Despite that, many say that it is worth it as it yields several favorable benefits, like bigger berries, higher yields, and fewer problems in terms of diseases.
Matted Row System
This specific system is the ideal choice for planting strawberries if what you intend to grow and cultivate are June-bearing cultivars. This system involves setting the strawberry plants around 18 to 30 inches apart.
They also have to be in rows that are apart by around 3 to 4 feet. The matted row system allows daughter plants to root freely for them to turn into a matted row with a width that is not over 2 feet.
This planting system is perfect if you have chosen to grow everbearing and day-neutral varieties. When using this system, you will have to remove every runner that you can find. This is crucial as you need to retain only the original mother plant.
By removing the runners, you can encourage the mother to increase the development and production of flower stalks and crowns. It is also crucial to arrange multiple rows composed of two to four strawberry plants. There should also be a 2-feet walkway in between every group of rows.
Set the plants apart by around one foot in several rows. Weed the planting during the first 2-3 weeks of its growing season. Mulching the strawberry bed should come next.
Growing Strawberries in Containers/Pots
If you have no outdoor space that you can use for a garden or live in a place with naturally alkaline soil, then don’t worry as there is still a way for you to grow strawberries – that is by using containers or pots. The small root system of this strawberry fruit is one reason why it works incredibly well in pots or containers.
You can actually grow strawberries using a pot or container by filling it up with quality potting soil enriched with compost first. Also, similar to when you plant and grow them in the ground, you need to look for a spot that exposes them to full sunlight.
Remember that potted strawberries tend to dry quicker compared to the ones in a patch. That said, check and monitor them daily to ensure that they still have consistently moist soil. If possible, use a drip irrigation system when planting strawberries in containers.
Make fulfilling this task a whole lot easier by setting a timer. It also helps to pick a pot or container that features drainage holes. You should be able to find these holes at the bottom. That way, you have a guarantee that the plants will not sit in water.
The day-neutral strawberries are actually the ones that are perfectly suitable for pot or container growth. The reason is that they can only make a few runners.
When the winter comes, you have two options when dealing with the planted strawberries in a pot or container. Dump out the plants and soil and wash the container or pot. Store it during winter and decide to replant the next year.
Alternatively, you can water your strawberry plants up until the late fall. After that, put the pot in a shed or garage without heat. The goal here is to make the plants dormant.
Continue providing the strawberry plants with a bit of water per week. Once the last spring frost arrives, take back the pot to its sunny location. This will encourage the plants to grow again.
Caring for your strawberry plant to ensure that it grows healthily consists of very basic tips. The following are just a few of the components of strawberry fruit care:
Ideally, strawberries need 8 hours of full sunlight daily. This was already discussed in a section of this book. However, you can also plant them in any other place that provides it with at least 6 hours of sun daily. Expect only a small and limited harvest when you plant your strawberries in a spot with just minimal light.
Garden strawberry fruit is fond of using soil that is loamy and rich. It should have a pH level of 5.8 to 6.2 so it can help produce maximum yield. Plant your chosen strawberries in such a way that the soil covers its roots.
On the other hand, you have to expose the crown to light and fresh air. Avoid burying it too deeply as it may only lead to plant rot.
As for the water, what you need to provide your strawberries should be around one to two inches every week. It is crucial to water regularly during the time when the fruit is still in the stage of forming. This should happen during the early bloom up to the end of harvest.
Humidity and Temperature
The best temperature for the growth of garden strawberries is around 60 to 80 degrees F. It is also capable of withstanding temperatures that are around 22 degrees F. You just have to make sure that it has a sort of protection from frost.
Also, note that strawberries are not fond of high humidity. The reason is that high humidity causes powdery mildew to develop and spread. With that said, ensure that your plants receive adequate air circulation.
In terms of fertilizers, you can begin by using organic soil that is also compost-rich. Put on a balanced fertilizer – one with a (10-10-10) label at the exact planting time. The rate of application should be one pound for every 100 sq. ft. of area.
Add fertilizer again once you have completed renovating June-bearing plants. Do the same after you have harvested everbearing and day-neutrals for the second time.
Avoid overfertilizing as it can only result in the excessive growth of the strawberry leaf. It may also lead to poor flowering. Moreover, avoid fertilizing these plants late in the season, especially if you live in a place with a cold climate. The reason is that you have to avoid new growth at this time as the frost may only damage the roots.
Harvesting Garden Strawberries
Garden strawberries start producing fruit in around three weeks during the late spring. However, it is also possible for the fruit to come out earlier if you are in a place with a warmer climate. Expect the strawberries to have the sweetest tastes if you let them ripen fully on the plants before the actual harvest.
This means that most varieties should let the berries stay on the plant for around one to two days after noticing them obtaining their full color. If you want to be sure that it is fully ripe, though, the best way to do it would be to taste them.
Also, note that the strawberries tend to bruise quickly and easily. That said, during the harvest, just pull the fruit gently from the plants. A wise tip would be cutting or snapping the stem that is directly on top of the strawberry fruit.
Do not harvest strawberries by pulling them forcefully; otherwise, you may cause damage to the plants. Also, remember that the strawberries have to be dry at the time you pick them. The reason is that wet berries can’t be expected to do incredibly well and are at risk of developing molds quickly.
They are not like tomatoes that will still ripen after picking them. After the harvest, keep the berries in a shady and cool area.
Renovation plays a vital role in growing June-bearers, specifically those that use the matted row system. Note that you can’t expect these plants to live forever, so it is crucial to renovate directly after harvest.
The renovation process can help make the plants stay vigorous for a max of 5 years while new runner plants replace weakened and old ones. This process involves thinning the strawberry plants in rows to around 6-inch apart. Typically, around five to six plants for every square foot should be the highest acceptable number.
After that, mow the tops to an inch over the crowns. Be extra careful during this time to avoid damaging the crowns. For disease-free foliage, raking the leaves then composting or integrating them into the soil is beneficial for the plants.
It is also advisable to fertilize the area using a balanced fertilizer (10-10-10 formula). Keep the rows narrow, around 12 to 18 inches apart, through tilling or hoeing.
You will know that you have made an aggressive and good effort for renovation if you notice that it resulted in the removal of around half of the plants. Once removed, use a tiller to start making the mulch medium work in the soil.
One thing to note about the strawberries is that they come with shallow root systems. That said, it helps to spread a layer of soil (should be thin at around one-half-inch) around the crowns. This is necessary for facilitating the development of new roots.
Keep on watering the strawberry plants with a minimum of one to two inches of water weekly through the entire September. Ensure that the planting remains free of weed until the time when the first frost comes.
Let early runners root anywhere they want until you have reestablished your preferred row width. Note, though, that the runners that you have produced after the 1st day of September will have no time establishing themselves and surviving the winter season. That said, you need to have them removed.
Also, note that once you start sensing that your growing strawberries begin to lose their vigor or have a hard time retaining their vitality, combined with a significant decrease in yields, it may indicate that they may have reached their lifetime. In that case, it may be necessary to begin planting new strawberries in another spot.
How to Keep Your Strawberry Plants Protected During the Winter?
One fact about the strawberry plant that you should keep in mind is that its crown is at risk of dying when exposed to temperatures that are around 15 degrees F. With that said, it is truly crucial to do things designed to protect the plant from the winter.
If your strawberry plants harden after around two to three fruits, use around 4-inch to 6-inch straw that is free from weeds to cover them. Strawberry plants with straw may be even more necessary during the early spring or the late fall as this is the time when cold temperatures arise with no snow cover.
Snow is actually a great insulator. It can provide adequate and reliable protection. Once spring comes, the time when strawberry growth starts, it is advisable to rake away the straw.
However, make sure that you still leave some of the straw at the base as such will serve as the plant’s summer mulch. If there is an upcoming frost after the flowering starts, use the straw to cover the plants again. Alternatively, you can use row covers made of spun-bonded polyester fabric for effective winter protection.
Common Diseases Affecting Your Strawberry Plants
If you have decided to grow your own strawberry plants, you have to watch out for the common diseases that may affect them. This is so you can act on them right away, thereby preventing severe infections that may result in the death of the plants.
Apply some preventive measures by keeping your garden clean and ensuring that you provide appropriate spacing, fertilizer, and water, to the plants.
This fungal disease causes the upper leaf surfaces of your strawberry fruit to have brown or dark purple blotches. Eventually, this disease may trigger bigger purple-brown patches with the tissues in between them turning red or purple.
Leaf scorch also triggers the development of lesions that frequently occur when you leave the foliage wet for an extremely long period. This can further result in the withering and dropping off the plants, and eventually, their death.
Avoid such problems by providing excellent air circulation for your strawberry. There should be proper soil drainage, too. You can further control this problem by using a foliar fungicide.
As another fungal disease, the powdery mildew triggers the appearance of white and fuzzy fungal growth patches at the lower surfaces of the leaves. They will enlarge eventually, causing you to find purple-red blotches.
You have to stop the powdery mildew from taking over the plant severely as this may stop the fruit production process. Apply a protection fungicide once you detect the presence of this fungal disease to keep it under control.
Angular Leaf Spot
It refers to a bacterial disease, which triggers the formation of water-soaked and tiny lesions on your strawberry’s lower leaf surfaces. Expect these lesions to become dark green and enlarge in no time.
Angular leaf spots can thrive in your crops’ debris, overwintering the plants in the process. It is kind of hard to remove. It is the reason why you have to plant stocks that are certified free of any diseases.
Rotating crops is also necessary. Avoid using chemical products for this form of the disease as it may not be completely effective and may only cause further damage to the plants.
This one is a fungal disease that commonly affects the blossoms of your strawberry, causing them to become brownish and eventually die. If this affects your plant, it is highly likely for the fruit to have rotting and misshapen patches.
Masses of gray mycelium may also be visible on the tissues that are rotting, causing the fruit to wither and become extremely dry. Gray mold tends to come out after exposing the plants to excessive moisture and a high level of humidity for a long period.
To avoid and control this problem, make sure that there is enough space in between the plants. Watering them at the soil level is crucial, too. Get rid of all infected or dead materials then toss all decaying fruits. It also helps to use some fungicides.
This fungus can affect every green part of your strawberry plant. It severely infects the leaves in shaded patches. This fungus can develop after prolonged periods of constant wetness, eventually infecting the plants. You can keep this problem in control by implementing solutions that support the quick drying of the fruits and leaves.
Common Pests and Insects
It’s also advisable to watch out for the following pests that may invade your garden when you are growing strawberries:
These are soft-bodied and tiny insects who love to attach themselves to stems and leaves’ undersides, thereby sucking the plants’ sap out. The problem with aphids is that they also tend to leave honeydew, a sticky substance, behind that may only attract other diseases and pests to the strawberry fruit.
Minor infestations do not cause severe problems. However, in extreme cases, the aphids may destroy your crops. If the aphid infestation only affects a few shoots and leaves of the fruit, then controlling it is possible by pruning out the infested parts.
You may also want to use reflective mulches, like silver-colored plastic, to deter aphids and ensure that they don’t feed on the plants. If you already have strong and sturdy plants, then you can knock off aphids from their leaves by spraying them with water.
Use insecticides only when there is a severe or high infestation on your strawberry. Also, you can use insecticidal soaps and canola or neem oil for proper control.
These destructive garden pests may cause irregularly-shaped holes to appear on the strawberry leaves. Heavy infestation may lead to your leaves becoming skeletonized and triggering dry wounds.
Egg clusters of armyworms may also appear on the leaves of the fruit. Control this pest through organic and natural methods, such as releasing their natural enemies.
You can easily spot these pests in your plants with their green-copper and metallic colors. The presence of Adult Japanese beetles in your strawberries may cause skeletonized leaves and flower damage.
Left undealt with, your strawberry may get damaged extensively. Protect your strawberries from the Japanese beetles with the help of floating row covers. You may handpick adult ones from the plants then stick them in water with soap, too.
Another solution is to release parasitic nematodes that can lessen the number of these pests overwintering in the soil. You may also want to spray neem oil or apply insecticidal soap to the affected strawberry plants to lessen the beetle population.
Spider mites are among the most annoying pests that can ever penetrate your strawberry plants. The reason is that aside from being so small, you will also have a hard time controlling them.
If your plants get infested with these pests, expect to witness bronzed and yellow stippled leaves. Spider mites may also cause the leaves of your strawberries to be covered by webbing.
Looking at them closely will let you see the mites as they move on the underside and webbings of the leaves. You can resolve this problem with the help of a strong jet of water sprayed into them. This should be enough in lowering their population.
You may also seek the help of insecticidal soaps and other natural insecticides. Just make sure to pick those that truly work for spider mites.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
What is the best way to grow strawberries?
There are a couple of ways to grow strawberries. You can either grow the fruit from seeds or buy starters. The latter means you can buy or transplant strawberry plants that you can grow and cultivate in your garden.
A lot of gardeners believe that it is much better to grow strawberries from the bare roots or plants they just have purchased. The reason is that this method is easier compared to growing the fruit from seeds.
However, if what you intend to grow is a less common or popular variety of the fruit, then starting from seeds would be much better.
How do you take care of a strawberry plant?
For your strawberry plants to survive and grow healthily, give them the best kind of care possible. Generally, strawberries favor being in well-drained soil. The soil should be rich in organic matter, too.
Give the fruit adequate water, sunlight, and proper nourishment through fertilizer, too. Also, part of caring for the strawberries in your garden is to avoid planting them in areas where you have also grown eggplants, tomatoes, potatoes, and peppers.
The reason is that such plants are prone to getting verticillium wilt, which is a serious disease that may affect strawberries.
Do strawberries like the full sun?
Yes, you need to provide strawberries with full sun for them to grow and survive well. Ideally, the strawberries require at least 8 hours of full sun daily.
Despite that, note that you can still plant it in places that let it receive around 6 to 10 hours of sun every day. Note, though, that planting this fruit in less light will result in smaller harvests.
Do strawberries come back every year?
Yes, strawberries may come back yearly, provided they have healthy roots. Do not worry too much in case their leaves die back or become deep red when winter comes.
It could be just the natural dormant phase of the strawberry, which is vital for the harvest next season. It is crucial to focus on crown and root health as this is what your strawberries need to regrow successfully.
How to propagate strawberries?
Strawberries spread naturally through the stem runners spreading out from the mother or parent plant then root themselves in the soil surrounding it. Upon the rooting of the runners, snip the connecting stems of the strawberry fruit
You can then dig the plantlet that resulted from it then transplant it to another location. Pin down the runners to the soil to speed up the rooting. It would be best for you to dig up then transfer the plantlets during the early fall.
Do I have to prune the strawberry plants?
Yes, pruning may be necessary but for the correct varieties of the fruit. For instance, June-bearing strawberries tend to produce numerous runners that you have to leave in place, so pruning may not be that necessary.
However, for the day-neutral and everbearing varieties, the runners that they produce are only a few and they also tend to develop inferior fruits. This is the reason why you should try snipping off the runners in the mentioned varieties.
Also, within the first year of growing the plants, pick off their blossoms. It can contribute a lot to the significant increase of the yield during the second year. The reason is that it will allow the plant to focus its energy on the development of healthy roots, rather than fruit, during the first year.
Strawberries are among the most popular plants you can grow in your garden. The good thing about the strawberry plants is that they multiply, promoting the production of better and larger crops of sweet berries.
With that said, growing strawberries in your garden is definitely a great idea as it allows you to enjoy a bountiful harvest in no time.